Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Examination Paper on Cross-Cultural Training Essay Culturally diverse Training Research Paper Presentation Growing abroad, an organization unavoidably faces the quandary in human asset the board. It can either recruit neighborhood representatives and train them in corporate culture and rehearses or depend on bringing ostracize workforce. Each approach has its points of interest and inconveniences. Thinking about the business workforce, the organization will most likely perceive the need to offer multifaceted preparing to exiles to guarantee that they can work enough in a remote scene. This paper will consider the relative advantages and disadvantages of exiles versus neighborhood recruits and diagram preparing and acquaintance methodology for locally established ostracizes. Locally situated Expatriates versus Local Nationals In directing deals abroad, the organization can pick two basic approaches to sell its items: Utilizing locally established sales reps who will work from the administrative center, connecting with clients abroad; Using the workforce in the zone, employing nearby individuals. The upsides of local people are evident: they have experienced childhood in the way of life in which they will be working and will locate a typical language with clients all the more proficiently. It implies that they needn't bother with the social change that will incorporate preparing for ostracizes. Their connections with clients will rely just upon their characteristics, and not on holes in social information. We will compose a custom exposition test on Research Paper on Cross-Cultural Training explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on Research Paper on Cross-Cultural Training explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Research Paper on Cross-Cultural Training explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Furthermore, experienced salesmen are bound to have a created system of contacts in an industry that will assist them with improving their deals. The significance of systems administration in deals can barely be misrepresented, and it is basic that the salesman can either have it Ã¢â¬Å"ready-madeÃ¢â¬ or can rapidly create it on the spot. This is progressively troublesome on account of locally established ostracizes who will have just irregular contacts with their customers and restricted chance to go to nearby occasions. The drawback of recruiting neighborhood nationals is frequently absence of comprehension of the way of life of a particular company and the country on which it is based. For instance, a Japanese recruit utilized in a US organization ought to have an away from of American business culture to associate proficiently with bosses. Hence, Gross Hewes (1997) prescribe American organizations to search for spurred and taught representatives on grounds of American colleges. These individuals will be prepared in American culture, simultaneously safeguarding associations with their country. Be that as it may, in Japan, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"returnees,Ã¢â¬ a considerable lot of whom are in their 30s, have, will have, or accept they will have, a troublesome time rearranging to the exceptionally formalized Japanese method of doing businessÃ¢â¬ (Gross Hewes, 1997). It is to be viewed as while recruiting local people. By and large, every country will have its customs to consider. On account of ostracizes, it is simpler to do interior enlisting, choosing individuals who are as of now acquainted with the organization, comprehend the product offering, and have involvement with the business. Nonetheless, culturally diverse hindrances can turn into an issue. Exiles should be given concentrated culturally diverse preparing before their assignments, which thus can make additional costs for the organization and add to the expenses of the workforce. Moreover, multifaceted preparing may not take care of the change issue and requires significant investment, which may lessen the adaptability of the workforce. The land area of ostracizes in the home office will assuredly be a drawback to business as these individuals should make a trip to arrive at their assignments. It additionally adds to the expenses of working together by means of exiles since the organization will bring about costs identified with business travel, for example, airfare, inns, and so on. In general, the organization ought to endeavor to keep up an ideal representative blend, joining ostracizes with nearby administrators. A Global Human Resource Metrics model proposed by De Cieri and Boudreau (2003) might be useful when deciding definite extents. Preparing and Familiarization Procedures Diverse preparing can incorporate an assortment of different techniques planned for acquainting workers with various parts of the way of life in which they are required to work. In preparing, exiles ought to procure various capabilities, including steady and dynamic ones, and get both genuine and calculated information. Verifiable information incorporates essential realities about the history and foundation of a specific nation, its financial, political, and public activity. Hypothetical experience, interestingly, reflects Ã¢â¬Å"an comprehension of how the specific nation perspectives and qualities focal concerns, for example, fitting types of practices, singular rights, and gathering participation and its related commitments, and commitments to the stateÃ¢â¬ (Leiba-OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan, 1999, p.79). Abilities will incorporate compromise procedures, self-upkeep aptitudes, social information, and others. The main system in culturally diverse preparing ought to act naturally evaluation. A worker ought to get satisfactory information on their diverse capability and capacity to manage outside demographic. The administrators in this procedure ought to get a comprehension of their qualities and shortcomings when they interface with individuals of an alternate culture. During the time spent self-evaluation, Ã¢â¬Å"by distinguishing their characteristics, chiefs can gain by their qualities and limit their weaknessesÃ¢â¬ (Harrison, 1994, p.17). To find out about their characteristics, supervisors can be required to do an assortment of tests that will open them to this information. They can, for example, be tried for the information on authentic data about a nation or reasonable comprehension of collaboration instruments. Preparing projects ought to incorporate the data arranged segment that will increment expatriatesÃ¢â¬â¢ verifiable information about a country. This part is Ã¢â¬Å"characterized by psychological securing through talks, tapes, and perusing materialsÃ¢â¬ (York, 1994, p. 102). A representative in deals will without a doubt profit by the information on a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, salary levels, utilization designs. B2B deals are troublesome without the information on lawful business frames in the country, corporate structures, and comparative data that can be conveyed as talks or online introductions. Data preparing is a helpful essential for the advancement of pertinent abilities; be that as it may, all alone, it doesn't deliver aptitudes in representatives and should, in this way, be utilized uniquely in mix with different techniques. No less significant is preparing in subjective social parts of culturally diverse changes in which an individual adapts Ã¢â¬Å"culturally molded frameworks of remunerations and disciplines that work in the objective cultureÃ¢â¬ (York, 1994, p. 102). In psychological social preparing, a worker can be given courses in compromise that can be applied to outside societies. For this reason, for example, a social assimilator can be applied (Corhonen, 2003). This strategy includes a proposal of a few answers for a similar issue where just one answer is right. For instance, representatives are given data about a corporate clash that could have advanced in China or elsewhere and are approached to assess the choices for managing this contention. Over the span of preparing, they need to choose the right arrangement out of the decisions proposed. It is important for this situation that the educator gives unequivocal responses to the inquiries of students concerning the decision of a clarificat ion. Workers ought to likewise be allowed to encounter intelligent preparing Ã¢â¬Å"intended to acclimate learners with the objective culture by utilizing experienced sojourners or target culture agents to educate from their perspectivesÃ¢â¬ (York, 1994, p. 102). The coaches can carry individuals with the important social foundation into the preparation space to show workers the subtleties of their societies. They can relate scenes where culture is particularly emphatically showed, experienced contrasts and answer traineesÃ¢â¬â¢ questions concerning potential issues. It is perfect when the individual tending to the crowd has experience examining both the educated culture and source culture of students. For instance, a Japanese official who has since a long time ago cooperated with Americans would be in the best situation to address a gathering of US sales reps to enlighten them regarding botches oftentimes made by their American partners. At last, workers can experience experiential preparing that will presumably be best as the last piece of their task. This sort of preparing will incorporate Ã¢â¬Å"interactive or drenching language preparing, pretending procedures, social assimilators, and recreations, and site visits or preparing inside the remote settingÃ¢â¬ (Chadwin, Sum, Rogers, 1995, p. 517). Experiential preparing assumes inundation in a remote culture in which the individual encounters it direct. It most intently looks like the genuine assignments that the individual will direct abroad. Over the span of pretends, an individual can prepare their aptitudes in culturally diverse correspondence. A sales rep may think that its valuable to experience a pretend that will imitate the business arrangements with an outside accomplice. End The significance of social change in accordance with another culture can barely be exaggerated. The issues around there as often as possible add to the disappointment of exile assignments in remote countries. Representatives working from a locally established office to direct deal
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The United States Olympic Committee (USOC), at first named the American Olympic Association, was framed in 1896. Individuals from the council tried to give help to United States Olympic competitors with preparing and different needs. As the USOC isn't government subsidized the board has depended intensely on corporate financing and private gifts (Ã¢â¬Å"Team USA,Ã¢â¬ 2011). In any case, throughout the years while the proceeded with intrigue of the Olympic Games remained, the expanded expense of lodging, dress, and thinking about U.S. competitors alongside other elite athletics competing for corporate sponsorship, made acquiring subsidizing troublesome. In this manner, the USOC was tested with convincing corporate supporters that putting resources into the Olympic Games was a rewarding and practical endeavor (OÃ¢â¬â¢Rourke, 2010). In this way, the techniques utilized by the USOC to convince organizations to contribute just as inspiring components basic corporate sponsorship are i nvestigated. Case Analysis Influence Message The capacity to convey successfully is fundamental in business (OÃ¢â¬â¢Rourke, 2010). So as to give data, pass on a message, and clarify a thought, specialized instruments must be applied every day (N, 2005). The most significant specialized instrument is the influential (N, 2005). This is because of the way that whatever is being passed on at the working environment requires a level of influence (N, 2005). Subsequently, influence is the capacity to move an individual or gathering vigorously. Boyer and Stoddard (2011), portray influence as Ã¢â¬Å"the demonstration of getting an aware being other than yourself to embrace a specific conviction or seek after a specific activity (p. 1). In this way, with the end goal for influence to be compelling a degree of trust between the gatherings must exist (OÃ¢â¬â¢Rourke, 2010). In this way, the challen... ... their relationship with the Olympic development and create intercessions including refreshed showcasing and limited time techniques to address the issue. In addition, a selectiveness directly for some corporate backers has made enterprises without this kind of agreement feel below average which makes the opportunities for trap promoting to surface (Palomba, 2010). Snare promoting is a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s endeavor to relate itself straightforwardly or in a roundabout way with an occasion, group, or superstar without being conceded appropriate authorization or pay the vital permitting expenses. Subsequently, official supporters may not get the full advantage or business estimation of paying to be authentic backers (Palomba, 2010). Accordingly, the USOC needs to ensure real patrons by instituting or authorizing defensive enactment to abridge or destroy snare promoting strategies (Palomba, 2010).
Friday, August 21, 2020
Professor Glenn Denning, MPA-DP Program Director, giving the keynote address for the One World Festival COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog
Professor Glenn Denning, MPA-DP Program Director, giving the keynote address for the One World Festival COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Last week Professor Glenn Denning, our MPA-DP Program Director led a public talk at #OneWorldFestival event at Queenâs University, Belfast. Professor Denning discussed how the world can build a sustainable food supply system in a time when an ever-increasing population is to reach 10 billion by 2050. As he put it: âItâs not rocket science â" we have all the knowledge we need. What we need to do is invest pro-actively and strategically or we face the catastrophe of famine and extreme environmental degradation we have all been warned about. Read more on what Professor Denning shared before the audience of the event here. Learn more about the MPA-DP Program. Follow us on: Instagram: @columbiasipa_mpadp Twitter: @ColumbiaMPADP LinkedIn Facebook
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Before the 1980s, courts relied on testimony and eyewitness accounts as a main source of evidence. Notoriously unreliable, these techniques have since faded away to the stunning reliability of DNA forensics. In 1984, British geneticist Alec Jeffreys of the University of Leicester discovered an interesting new marker in the human genome. Most DNA information is the same in every human, but the junk code between genes is unique to every person. Junk DNA used for investigative purposes can be found in blood, saliva, perspiration, sexual fluid, skin tissue, bone marrow, dental pulp, and hair follicles (Butler, 2011). By analyzing this junk code, Jeffreys found certain sequences of 10 to 100 base pairs repeated multiple times. These tandemÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦DNA forensics can also narrow down suspect pools, exonerate innocent suspects, and link crimes together if the same DNA is found at both scenes. However, without existing suspects, a DNA profile cannot direct an investigati on because current knowledge of genotype-phenotype relation is too vague for DNA phenotyping. For example, a profile from a first time offender that has no match in any database may give the information that the criminal is a left handed male of medium stature with red hair and freckles. It would be impossible to interview every man who fits that description. However, with available suspects, DNA forensics has many advantages over other forms of evidence. One is the longevity of DNA. Although it will deteriorate if exposed to sunlight, it can remain intact for centuries under proper conditions (Sachs, 2004). Because DNA is so durable, investigators can reopen old cases to reexamine evidence. DNA from animals and plants can also be utilized in criminal forensics. One of the most common applications of this is the analysis of pet hair from a crime scene, which often links its owner to the crime. DNA fingerprints have also been applied to cannabis plants, and a database is being created to trace samples to their sources. This has been extremely successful so far, as this technology can distinguish between closely related, carefully bred plants (Westphal, 2003). Heather Miller Coyle of the ConnecticutShow MoreRelatedDna And The Criminal Justice System872 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeoxyribonucleic Acid, otherwise known as DNA has played a crucial part in many investigations both past and present. It can be used to identify criminals when there is evidence left behind with incredible accuracy. DNA evidence is taken seriously enough that it can exonerate, or bring about a conviction. In TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society DNA evidence and technology is vital to the criminal justice system by ensuring accuracy and fairness. In 1984, Alec Jeffreys of the University of LeicesterRead MoreInvestigation Of A Criminal Investigation Essay1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInvestigation Research A criminal investigator can be described as an individual who collects, records, and analyzes evidence and information related to a criminal offense. The main goal of criminal investigation is to discover the truth regarding the events and processes that contributed to the occurrence of a criminal offense. Generally, the investigative process has four major objectives i.e. establishing the occurrence of an offense, determining and arresting the suspect, recovering stolenRead MoreEssay on Criminal Investigations1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCriminal Investigations are ways that crimes are looked at and criminals arrested (In EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica, 2011). It is a huge part of getting criminals off the street. Investigation is a crucial aspect for many different crimes such as, but not limited to, theft, robbery, burglary, arson, murder, and assault. Criminal Investigations can take days or up to many years to solve; some cases are never closed. Not only can investigations last for extended periods of time, the lives of those workingRead MoreThe Uses Of Dn Dna Fingerprinting1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJennifer Tran Mr. Tucker AP Biology 26 August 2015 The Uses of DNA: DNA Fingerprinting Sir Alec JeffreysÃ¢â¬â¢ 1984 discovery of DNA fingerprinting in England has revolutionized the criminal justice system by enabling legal entities to determine innocence or guilt of a suspect to a much higher level of accuracy(Butler). This discovery has also provided the ability to identify victims of natural disasters or catastrophes like 911(Lippincott). Additionally, DNA testing or profiling, has helped doctors and researchersRead MoreThe Effectiveness of DNA Profiling in Forensics Essay684 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagestechnology. DNA profiling is one of the technologies that has influenced efficiency and credibility of forensic evidence. The FBI first started using DNA in one of its cases in 1988. In Europe, the United Kingdom opened a DNA database in 1955 (Milena, 2006). The main use of the DNA is to compare the evidence collected at crime scene with the suspects. In addition, it helps to establish a connection between the evidence and the criminals. The investigations have been simp lified through the use of technologyRead MoreA Research On Forensic Science1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestangible objects related to criminal activity. As science expands in its research, it is applied to the forensics field. Among the most prevalent is biotechnology. Biotechnology was developed by the manipulation of biological elements and remains closely tied to society and it needs. Although many of the advances and discoveries are used to produce goods as foods, and medications many of the innovations benefit forensic science as well. The biggest contribution being DNA analysis, providing additionalRead MoreThe Importance Of Fingerprinting And Blood Testing712 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesof this nature is critical to criminal proceedings; however, there is no testimony being taken; therefore, counseling is not needed because a defendant cannot refuse such testing on the grounds of the Fifth Amendment. Fingerprint identification evidence is equated with guilt, while the lack of fingerpri nt identification evidence infers a weakness in the prosecutions case (Lawson, 2013). Ã¢â¬Å"Fingerprint identification is one of the most important criminal investigation tools due to two features: theirRead MoreEssay about DNA, The New Crime Investigator1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDNA, The New Crime Investigator Abstract What is DNA? The scientific definition is Ã¢â¬Å"deoxyribonucleic acid, the biological polymer that stores the genetic information in all free living organisms. Two linear molecules entwine to form the double helix. Now that the definition has been stated, letÃ¢â¬â¢s now define what DNA means to a crime scene or case investigator. In the law enforcement business DNA has been introduce as a revolutionary and efficient accurate tool to solve and crack modern andRead MoreThe Molecular Structure Of Dna1371 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA is the molecule that transports most genetic instructions utilized in the growth, function and biological process of all living organisms and many viruses.Ã¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster Dictionary) It was first discovered at the University of TÃ ¼bingen by Friedrich Miescher in 1869. Miescher discovered DNA through a microscopic substrate in a sample of pus on unwanted surgical gauze. (Dahm) Nature is a scientific journal in Britain, where studies and academic research in scientificRead MoreUse of Mrs. TobinsÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA in the Murder of Amanda Christopher796 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUse of Mrs. TobinsÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA in the Murder of Amanda Christopher Introduction: DNA comparisons are crucial when investigating crimes. Amanda ChristopherÃ¢â¬â¢s home had a significant amount of forensic evidence behind that has yet to be determined. The Supreme Court has analyzed the issue as to whether or not use storing and using DNA was considered constitutional. Although, Pennsylvania is silent on the issue, several states have seen the need for the use and storage of DNA that is obtained of arrestees
Thursday, May 14, 2020
A revolution is defined as being a generally violent attempt by many people to end one rule of governing, and to create their own (Websters Dictionary). The founding of our own independent country is based on such a notion, with our forefathers fighting to gain their freedom from the oppressive rule of Colonial England. With rampant fears of tyranny from a country deemed a super power, the American people were divided in their views of creating their own government, making the definition of a revolution all the more difficult. The years 1775 to 1785 in American history were enormously fundamental to the founding of the United States. From the famous Battles of Lexington and Concord which started the war with England, to the drafting of ourÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until April 1775 however, that the revolution caught the spark that ignited the war for independence. One of the most famous battles in our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s history was the Battle of Lexington and Conco rd, in consideration that it was during this battle that the first shots of the American Revolution were fired, signaling the start of the war for American Freedom. (American Revolution Center) England, merely presuming that this was simply a small rebellion, had instructed British Troops under direction from Massachusetts Governor, Thomas Gage, to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hitchcock and to retrieve the colonial soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s supply of gunpowder and ammunition stored in Concord. By attempting to arrest Adams and Hitchcock, key leaders of the revolution, who were stationed in Lexington at the time, they assumed they would squash the apparent rebellion with their capture, before it could spiral into war. What British Troops couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have anticipated however, was the gathering of American Patriots, or Minutemen as they were called, stationed on the road between Lexington and Concord. Having been previously warned by the now famous Paul Revere and his midnight ride to warn Adams and Hitchcock of the impending redcoats, the Minutemen and Redcoats clashed together at the site of the Old North Bridge, and thus the Ã¢â¬Å"shot heard around the worldÃ¢â¬ was fired. (American Revolution Center) AfterShow MoreRelatedThe American Revolution : The Revolution1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe American Revolution Revolutionizes the World It was the first revolution to majorly succeed and change how people saw their countries, it was the American Revolution. The American Revolution was the first successful revolution against a European empire that provided a model for many other colonial peoples who realized that they too could break away and become self-governing nations (New world Encyclopedia, 1).The American Revolution was vital to history because ideas seen by other countries startedRead MoreThe Revolution Of The American Revolution999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBetween 1770 and 1776, resistance to imperial change turned into a full-on revolution. The American Revolution, also known as the Revolutionary War, was a time of revolting and political uprising, in which the 13 colonies separated from the British Empire, forming the independent nation known as the United States of America. Though the American Revolution began because the colonies wanted independence from Britain, many important historical events and revolts also lead to the tensions and resistanceRead MoreThe Revolution Of The American Revolution1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEvery 4th of July, Americans are told the story of the American Revolution. We remember the oppressed colonists fighting against the tyrannical King George III and the formidable red coats. Patriotic heroes are remembered, evil kings are cursed, and the liberties and freedoms won from the war are celebrated. Though America often likes to look back to the revolution, the question of just how much a revolution was the American Revolution is rarely asked. While the American revolution was not as radicalRead MoreThe Revolution Of The American Revolution1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The revolution was effected before the war commenced. The revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people.Ã¢â¬ - John Adams, 1818 This quote means that the revolution actually took place metaphorically before the actually fighting began. It took place in the emotions and thoughts of the Americans. The Road to Revolution After the Seven YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ War created a financial problem for Britain The British tried to shoulder some of the financial responsibilities onto the Americas in the form of variousRead MoreThe Revolution Of The American Revolution850 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn regards to the American Revolution, the point that armed rebellion became inevitable arrived when after nearly five constant years of American colonist protesting. American s had enough and needed to take a stand for the numerous inequalities they were forced to deal with. It was foreseeable that the American Revolution took place due to the unfair taxes that the British were giving Americans. Also, England was not allowing Americans their freedom, along with violence and the political dominanceRead MoreThe American Revolution877 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespeople believe the American Revolution is strictly liberal, in truth it is conservative evidenced by the new British policies, colonial reactions and the examinations of what it means to be conservative vs. liberal. The American Revolution was triggered, by many laws that were passed between 1763 and 1775 that controlled trade and taxes. This legislation caused pressure between colonists and imperial officers, who had made it clear that the British Parliament would not address American complaints relatingRead MoreThe American Revolution871 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe American Revolution was the struggle by which thirteen colonies won independence from Great Britain, to become what we now know as The United States of America. The American Revolution came about primarily because the colonists had matured. Their interests and goals were so different and distant from those of the mother country. Local politics, practices, social customs, religious beliefs, and economic interests had gone so far from the English ways. The American Revolution had a tremendous impactRead MoreThe American Revolution1543 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe American Revolution was one of the most important battles in history. It led to the Declaration of Independence and the freedom of America from the British. No one can really say what the exact cause of the Revolution was, but there were many important social, cultural, political and economic causes that led up to the war. I believe one of the main economic reasons the Americans wanted to become free from the British and start the Revolution, was because of all the taxes the British imposedRead MoreThe American Revolution Essay1458 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshistorians might argue that the American Revolution was not so revolutionary in its nature, there is no denying the lasting effects that it has had not only on the continent, but the world. Through an analysis of documents from this period and the social, political, and economic changes that occurred in the colonies, it is clear that the colonial governmental system was radically changed during this time period. The political ideas that emerged from this revolution have shaped modern democratic governmentsRead MoreThe American Revolution1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe American Revolution has provided no shortage of patriotic and romanticized images and ideals for the general public throughout history. Indeed, to this very day, Americans hark back to this Ã¢â¬Ëglorious achievementÃ¢â¬â¢ with pride and use it as fuel for everything from selling jeans (Levi/Strauss) to the creation of video games (AssassinÃ¢â¬â¢s Creed.) But the question has remained, for all the hoopla and Ã¢â¬Å"remembranceÃ¢â¬ that surrounds this period in western history Ã¢â¬â was this revolution justified? As the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Advantages of Banning Public Cigarette Smoking For a long time now many people have different views about smoking in public places. Smokers feel it is their right to smoke where and when they want. On the other hand non-smokers feel smokers violate their rights and endanger their life. Smoking causes heart disease, lung cancer and other serious illnesses. Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. A substantial number of lung cancers that occur in non-smokers can be attributed to involuntary smoking. There are some parts in the United States where you can smoke in public places, on the other hand in New York there are designated areas. While some people feel that smoking in public places shouldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A U.S enviromental protection agency stated second-hand smoke is the third major cause of lung cancer in the United States. The simple separation of smokers within the same air space may reduce, but does not eliminate exposure to passive smoke. In Arizona five thousand and six hundred Americans died in 1989 due to passive smoke. A recent federal Environmental protection agency reported on the dangers of second hand smoke. They found this kills fifty-three thousand non smokers a year. By putting a smoke free policy into effect, it will send a strong message about protecting health. Even though designated areas are set aside for smokers this does not really protect a non-smoker. The heating and air conditions does not filter out carcinogens well enough and the smoke drifts onto non-designated areas. Finally, if public smoking is kept legalized we will have major problems facing the environment. One problem is alot of people are irritated by tobacco smoke. A man named General C.Everett Knoop released a report saying that passive smoking, when a non-smokers breathe smoke in an enclosed area, it causes as many as five deaths a year. Smoking in a public place is an air pollutant and it can damage health in a number of ways. The four major health hazards fall into air, water, and noise pollution. Air pollution can lead to various forms of respiratory disease. The main problem of smoking in a publicShow MoreRelatedBanning The Issue Of Banning Cigarettes1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat regard, what are considered public places in state laws in reference to smoking is very much debatable. It is our duty as individuals to exercise certain behaviors that will benefit others, regardless of life circumstances and serve our society in the most respectable manner, in accordance to people rights and choices. Since the nineties, there has been a massive controversy on the issue of banning cigarettes in the U.S. Some claim that banning public smoking is an infringement on their freedomRead MoreSmoking Essay1600 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJerry Thomas Professor Michaud Comp amp; Lit 101 December 13, 2010 Ban Smoking The human body is made up of all different organs that are essential to our living being. Taking care of these organs is vital to maintaining our health. One of our most important organs is the lungs. The lungs are used to take in oxygen from the air and help us make blood cells in the body. Keeping the lungs healthy is necessary to keeping your breathing and blood healthy. There are many things that keepRead MoreShould Cigarette Smoking Be Banned?1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBiology 101 Should Cigarette Smoking Be Banned? Should there be a ban on cigarette smoking in the United States? Since cigarettes were introduced to Americans, questions have been raised concerning the legality of smoking and if it should be allowed everyone, in public places, or not at all. Recently, with the increase knowledge in cost and healthcare, the controversy with cigarette smoking has significantly risen. Across the country, states have banned smoking in public areas and inside buildingsRead MoreShould Cigarette Smoking Be Banned?824 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Introduction: Tobacco Humans have been using tobacco in one way or the other since ancient times. Use of doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always imply smoking it, but it can be chewed or used in different forms such as Tobacco chewing, dipping tobacco, etc. History: There is no fix time for the start of the use of tobacco in humans but it has been in human use since very ancient times. Locals were using before the arrival of Europeans to Americas. Las Casas brilliantly describes in his journal what the scouts who firstRead MoreOutcome of Banning Smoking in Public Areas663 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesand severe childhood asthma problems has dropped by after smoking was banned in public places. Researchers from the University of Maastricht and the University of Edinburgh studied 250,000 hospital visits and more than 2.5 million births for asthma attacks in children. It was discovered that Ã¢â¬Å"preterm births and hospital attendance for asthma has fallen by 10% Ã¢â¬Å" especially in areas where smoking is banned. Though banning smoking at in public places would possibly have a negative effect, because peopleRead MoreArgumentative Essay About Why Smoking Should Be Banned1047 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBan Smoking in Public Places Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States, and doing it in public is even worse because smokers not only harm themselves, but also those around them. I remember how my great uncle would always smoke in his house regardless of his surroundings. When his daughter visited him for a vacation, she brought her three year old daughter with her. The baby was healthy before coming to her grandpas house, but in less than two weeks, sheRead MoreEssay on Why I Support Banning Smoking in Public Places567 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesprefer that no one smoke cigarettes in any of their offices. Most governments have banned smoking in all public places. Based on personal experience, personality style and emotional concern, we find that some hold the notion that smoking in public places should be banned. Meanwhile, others want to be as free as possible and do as they please, as long as their actions do not violate the rights of others. From my point of view, it is mor e sensible to ban smoking in public places rather than allow second-handRead MoreEssay about Electronic Cigarette Legalization Analysis982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSince 2008, Electronic Cigarettes have become widely popular across the United States, despite the obvious health benefits the long term health effects of Ã¢â¬Å"smokingÃ¢â¬ electronic cigarettes are still unknown to researchers today. Electronic Cigarettes are the answer to a safer method of consuming nicotine despite its more popular tobacco products. Even though the effects of consuming large amounts of nicotine in a personsÃ¢â¬â¢ system is unknown, the unbanning of electronic cigarettes in Los Angeles decreaseRead MoreShould Smoking Be Banned?1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbreak. Even though people are well equipped with the knowledge of how unhealthy smoking can be and what can it causes to their hearts and lungs, they still choose to smoke. Nowadays smoking becomes a trend like a social media, and especially teenagers , are participating in this as well. Although smoking makes you a person feel relaxed from the stress, it harms the body of the smokers in the long run. We have known that smoking can kill us from past 50-60 years, and according to the World Health OrganizationRead MoreThe Debate Over Banning Smoking in Public Places Essay607 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Debate Over Banning Smoking in Public Places In my opinion I think smoking should banned from public places. My reasons for this are; People who smoke should be considerate of that fact that not only are they damaging their own existing health but also they are harming the others around them who are only breathing in the tobacco smoke. During the past ten years of tests, experiments etc. on the effect of smoking both directly and passive, there is now enough
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Explain, and illustrate using graphs, whether you think a perfectly competitive industry or a monopoly industry leads to more efficient outcomes for an economy. RESEARCH ESSAY Microeconomics is defined as a study of how economic decisions are made by individuals and groups along with the range of factors affecting those decisions. In relevance to this, the analysis of perfect competition and monopoly regarding efficiency is considered one of the most core basis to the understanding of Microeconomics. This paper argues that a perfectly competitive industry leads to more efficient outcomes for an economy than a monopoly does.In this essay, I will first define the concept of two market structure types and then go on to explore how they affect the level of efficiency and economic welfare. Alternatively, I will also bring up some exceptions by which this finding may not be as correct as thought. The first section of this paper will briefly introduce the two main types of market structure. Perfect competition is a market that satisfies the conditions of having many buyers and sellers, firms selling identical products, having zero barriers to entry and having perfect information.A perfectly competitive firm is a price taker as it has no power of affecting the market price. In reality, perfect competition is only a theoretical model and it does not really exist in real-world market (Makowski 2001, 480; Ziebarth 2008, 3 and Pettinger N. Y, sec. 2) although there are some markets that can get slightly close to the previously discussed characteristics such as markets for organic food and currency markets. Despite this, perfect competition is still used as a benchmark since it displays high level of economic efficiency (Riley 2006, sec. 11, par. 1).With the second market structure, a firm is considered as a monopoly only when there is one seller providing certain goods or services with no close substitute and it can ignore other firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ actions as it is a price maker. (Hubbard, Garnett, Lewis and OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 2010, 224). In regards to the illustration of which industry leads to more efficient outcomes, the following discussion will consist two main parts which represent for the two ways economists use to evaluate perfect competition and monopoly. The first part relates to individual firms in terms of efficiency concept.The second part involves the industries and the level of economic welfare contributed to the entire society. Taking the first part in account, the three concepts of efficiency are of great importance. There are three types of efficiency: allocative, technical and dynamic efficiency. With allocative efficiency, products are produced up to the point where price, or marginal benefit, equals marginal cost of producing an extra unit. Technical efficiency refers to the act of producing a level of outputs using the least amount of resources.Dynamic efficiency is about the adoption of new technology over time to improve production techniques and meet the changing consumer demands (Lewis, Garnett, Treadgold and Hawtrey 2010, 94). Below are the two graphs showing firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ efficiency in providing goods and services in long-run: Perfect competitionMonopoly The left graph shows the long-run equilibrium of firms in perfect competition. According to this diagram, firms actually earn a zero economic profit since they have to accept the price determined by the whole industry. Thus, their MR curve is the same as their D curve which means they will produce at the output level Q where they can only cover the ATC. Thus, firms are seen as achieving both allocative and technical efficiency. They are allocatively efficient because they will produce up the point where price equals MC of producing an extra unit due to high level of competitors leaving and entering the market in short-run. Furthermore, the firms must minimize their production cost because of zero economic profit.In other words, if they fail to produce at the lowest point on the ATC curve, they have to charge a higher price which basically means they will be driven out of business in such highly competitive markets. So, in this case, perfectly competitive firms can also obtain technical efficiency. As seen in the right graph, with the lack of competition, firms in monopoly can earn great economic profits since they charge a much higher price compared to perfectly competitive firms. According to the diagram, there is allocative inefficiency since monopoly price is higher than MC; firms are producing too little while offering a too high price.In other words, with monopolists, Ã¢â¬Å"resources are under-allocatedÃ¢â¬ to the production of their product (Layton, Robinson and Tucker 2009, 223). Along with this, monopoly firms are not producing the level of outputs where ATC is at its minimum point due to the assistance of high barriers to entry. Thus, firms in monopoly once again fail to gain technical efficiency. Considering the previous discussion, the next section of this paper will explore how the industries of perfect competition and monopoly affect consumer surplus and producer surplus and hence, economic welfare as a whole.In brief, consumer surplus is the difference between the maximum price a consumer is willing to pay and the actual price paid. Producer surplus is the difference between the minimum price a firm is willing to charge and the actual price charged. Below are the two graphs illustrating the differences in economic welfare between the two market structures: Perfect competitionMonopoly Within perfect competition industry, the equilibrium point indicates both profit-maximizing price and profit-maximizing quantity since the firms within perfect competition industry are allocatively and technically efficient.Thus, this results in maximum economic welfare which is the sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus as shown in the left diagram. With the right diagram, while Pc and Qc are price and quantity of perfect competition, Pm and Qm represent for price and quantity of monopoly. As seen in this diagram, monopoly charges higher price which makes price increase from Pc to Pm. Hence, this end up in a loss in consumer surplus which is area 1, this loss becomes the gain of monopoly.Moreover, due to the decrease of output level from Qc to Qm, there is a loss in consumer surplus Ã¢â¬â area 2, and a loss in producer surplus Ã¢â¬ â area 3 as well. So these two losses are actually added up together as a deadweight loss in economic welfare for society. In short, perfect competition leads to more efficient outcomes to society in terms of efficiency concept and economic welfare. A perfectly competitive firm is more allocatively and technically efficient and it also lead to maximum economic welfare. Besides this, monopoly leads to inefficiency and deadweight loss for society.However, there are still some exceptions to this conclusion by which perfect competition may not be that efficient and monopoly may not be that inefficient. In relevance to the first exception, perfect competition is not as efficient as thought since it can end up with a market failure. One fundamental example of this would be one with externalities. An externality could be a benefit or cost that affects a third party of the exchange of the good. Two types of externalities are positive externality and negative externality; both deal with the extra benefit and cost to society that are not recognized by erfect competition industry. As a result, economic efficiency will be reduced and ended up as a deadweight loss as shown in the following diagrams: Positive externality Negative externality The second exception refers to natural monopoly by which monopoly can be considered productive efficient. According to McTaggart, Findlay and Parkin (2010, 222), a natural monopoly arises when one firm having large economies of scale can supply products to the entire market at a lower average total cost than several firms can. A prime example of this would be a power station.In general, it is of more efficiency when having only one firm serving the market than many competitive firms. This is true because many firms operating in such markets may have to produce at a much higher average total cost and thus, offer higher price than the natural monopoly. And this certainly leads to more inefficient outcomes. The final exception deals with the probability of firms having innovations and this relates to the dynamic efficiency concept. With perfect competition, due to high level of competition, firms may want to better their production techniques in order to compete with others.Yet in the long run, firms earn zero economic which also means that they do not have sufficient funds for RD. It is once again argued here that non-competitive firms like monopoly make large profits which can be spent for RD. Thus, monopoly in this case is more efficient in providing improvements and innovations to the products offered which is a significant benefit for society overall. In conclusion, the finding of this paper is that perfectly competitive firms achieve both allocative and technical efficiency while monopoly firms do not.Also, perfect competition is more efficient when helping the society obtain the maximum economic welfare while monopoly ends up with a deadweight loss. On the other hand, this paper has also brought up externalities, natural monopoly and innovation as some exceptions where perfect competition is not efficient as thought and monopoly can be more efficient. But for most cases, perfect competition is still a preferred economic model due to its high level of efficient outcomes for society. REFERENCES: Hubbard, Glenn, Anne Garnett, Phil Lewis and Tony OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien. 2010.