Sunday, May 24, 2020

Use of DNA in Criminal Investigations Essay - 2863 Words

Before the 1980s, courts relied on testimony and eyewitness accounts as a main source of evidence. Notoriously unreliable, these techniques have since faded away to the stunning reliability of DNA forensics. In 1984, British geneticist Alec Jeffreys of the University of Leicester discovered an interesting new marker in the human genome. Most DNA information is the same in every human, but the junk code between genes is unique to every person. Junk DNA used for investigative purposes can be found in blood, saliva, perspiration, sexual fluid, skin tissue, bone marrow, dental pulp, and hair follicles (Butler, 2011). By analyzing this junk code, Jeffreys found certain sequences of 10 to 100 base pairs repeated multiple times. These tandem†¦show more content†¦DNA forensics can also narrow down suspect pools, exonerate innocent suspects, and link crimes together if the same DNA is found at both scenes. However, without existing suspects, a DNA profile cannot direct an investigati on because current knowledge of genotype-phenotype relation is too vague for DNA phenotyping. For example, a profile from a first time offender that has no match in any database may give the information that the criminal is a left handed male of medium stature with red hair and freckles. It would be impossible to interview every man who fits that description. However, with available suspects, DNA forensics has many advantages over other forms of evidence. One is the longevity of DNA. Although it will deteriorate if exposed to sunlight, it can remain intact for centuries under proper conditions (Sachs, 2004). Because DNA is so durable, investigators can reopen old cases to reexamine evidence. DNA from animals and plants can also be utilized in criminal forensics. One of the most common applications of this is the analysis of pet hair from a crime scene, which often links its owner to the crime. DNA fingerprints have also been applied to cannabis plants, and a database is being created to trace samples to their sources. This has been extremely successful so far, as this technology can distinguish between closely related, carefully bred plants (Westphal, 2003). Heather Miller Coyle of the ConnecticutShow MoreRelatedDna And The Criminal Justice System872 Words   |  4 PagesDeoxyribonucleic Acid, otherwise known as DNA has played a crucial part in many investigations both past and present. It can be used to identify criminals when there is evidence left behind with incredible accuracy. DNA evidence is taken seriously enough that it can exonerate, or bring about a conviction. In Today’s society DNA evidence and technology is vital to the criminal justice system by ensuring accuracy and fairness. In 1984, Alec Jeffreys of the University of LeicesterRead MoreInvestigation Of A Criminal Investigation Essay1447 Words   |  6 PagesInvestigation Research A criminal investigator can be described as an individual who collects, records, and analyzes evidence and information related to a criminal offense. The main goal of criminal investigation is to discover the truth regarding the events and processes that contributed to the occurrence of a criminal offense. Generally, the investigative process has four major objectives i.e. establishing the occurrence of an offense, determining and arresting the suspect, recovering stolenRead MoreEssay on Criminal Investigations1096 Words   |  5 PagesCriminal Investigations are ways that crimes are looked at and criminals arrested (In Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, 2011). It is a huge part of getting criminals off the street. Investigation is a crucial aspect for many different crimes such as, but not limited to, theft, robbery, burglary, arson, murder, and assault. Criminal Investigations can take days or up to many years to solve; some cases are never closed. Not only can investigations last for extended periods of time, the lives of those workingRead MoreThe Uses Of Dn Dna Fingerprinting1486 Words   |  6 PagesJennifer Tran Mr. Tucker AP Biology 26 August 2015 The Uses of DNA: DNA Fingerprinting Sir Alec Jeffreys’ 1984 discovery of DNA fingerprinting in England has revolutionized the criminal justice system by enabling legal entities to determine innocence or guilt of a suspect to a much higher level of accuracy(Butler). This discovery has also provided the ability to identify victims of natural disasters or catastrophes like 911(Lippincott). Additionally, DNA testing or profiling, has helped doctors and researchersRead MoreThe Effectiveness of DNA Profiling in Forensics Essay684 Words   |  3 Pagestechnology. DNA profiling is one of the technologies that has influenced efficiency and credibility of forensic evidence. The FBI first started using DNA in one of its cases in 1988. In Europe, the United Kingdom opened a DNA database in 1955 (Milena, 2006). The main use of the DNA is to compare the evidence collected at crime scene with the suspects. In addition, it helps to establish a connection between the evidence and the criminals. The investigations have been simp lified through the use of technologyRead MoreA Research On Forensic Science1203 Words   |  5 Pagestangible objects related to criminal activity. As science expands in its research, it is applied to the forensics field. Among the most prevalent is biotechnology. Biotechnology was developed by the manipulation of biological elements and remains closely tied to society and it needs. Although many of the advances and discoveries are used to produce goods as foods, and medications many of the innovations benefit forensic science as well. The biggest contribution being DNA analysis, providing additionalRead MoreThe Importance Of Fingerprinting And Blood Testing712 Words   |  3 Pagesof this nature is critical to criminal proceedings; however, there is no testimony being taken; therefore, counseling is not needed because a defendant cannot refuse such testing on the grounds of the Fifth Amendment. Fingerprint identification evidence is equated with guilt, while the lack of fingerpri nt identification evidence infers a weakness in the prosecutions case (Lawson, 2013). â€Å"Fingerprint identification is one of the most important criminal investigation tools due to two features: theirRead MoreEssay about DNA, The New Crime Investigator1358 Words   |  6 PagesDNA, The New Crime Investigator Abstract What is DNA? The scientific definition is â€Å"deoxyribonucleic acid, the biological polymer that stores the genetic information in all free living organisms. Two linear molecules entwine to form the double helix. Now that the definition has been stated, let’s now define what DNA means to a crime scene or case investigator. In the law enforcement business DNA has been introduce as a revolutionary and efficient accurate tool to solve and crack modern andRead MoreThe Molecular Structure Of Dna1371 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA is the molecule that transports most genetic instructions utilized in the growth, function and biological process of all living organisms and many viruses.† (Merriam-Webster Dictionary) It was first discovered at the University of Tà ¼bingen by Friedrich Miescher in 1869. Miescher discovered DNA through a microscopic substrate in a sample of pus on unwanted surgical gauze. (Dahm) Nature is a scientific journal in Britain, where studies and academic research in scientificRead MoreUse of Mrs. Tobins’s DNA in the Murder of Amanda Christopher796 Words   |  3 PagesUse of Mrs. Tobins’s DNA in the Murder of Amanda Christopher Introduction: DNA comparisons are crucial when investigating crimes. Amanda Christopher’s home had a significant amount of forensic evidence behind that has yet to be determined. The Supreme Court has analyzed the issue as to whether or not use storing and using DNA was considered constitutional. Although, Pennsylvania is silent on the issue, several states have seen the need for the use and storage of DNA that is obtained of arrestees

Thursday, May 14, 2020

American Revolution Essay - 2256 Words

A revolution is defined as being a generally violent attempt by many people to end one rule of governing, and to create their own (Websters Dictionary). The founding of our own independent country is based on such a notion, with our forefathers fighting to gain their freedom from the oppressive rule of Colonial England. With rampant fears of tyranny from a country deemed a super power, the American people were divided in their views of creating their own government, making the definition of a revolution all the more difficult. The years 1775 to 1785 in American history were enormously fundamental to the founding of the United States. From the famous Battles of Lexington and Concord which started the war with England, to the drafting of our†¦show more content†¦It wasn’t until April 1775 however, that the revolution caught the spark that ignited the war for independence. One of the most famous battles in our nation’s history was the Battle of Lexington and Conco rd, in consideration that it was during this battle that the first shots of the American Revolution were fired, signaling the start of the war for American Freedom. (American Revolution Center) England, merely presuming that this was simply a small rebellion, had instructed British Troops under direction from Massachusetts Governor, Thomas Gage, to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hitchcock and to retrieve the colonial soldier’s supply of gunpowder and ammunition stored in Concord. By attempting to arrest Adams and Hitchcock, key leaders of the revolution, who were stationed in Lexington at the time, they assumed they would squash the apparent rebellion with their capture, before it could spiral into war. What British Troops couldn’t have anticipated however, was the gathering of American Patriots, or Minutemen as they were called, stationed on the road between Lexington and Concord. Having been previously warned by the now famous Paul Revere and his midnight ride to warn Adams and Hitchcock of the impending redcoats, the Minutemen and Redcoats clashed together at the site of the Old North Bridge, and thus the â€Å"shot heard around the world† was fired. (American Revolution Center) AfterShow MoreRelatedThe American Revolution : The Revolution1367 Words   |  6 PagesThe American Revolution Revolutionizes the World It was the first revolution to majorly succeed and change how people saw their countries, it was the American Revolution. The American Revolution was the first successful revolution against a European empire that provided a model for many other colonial peoples who realized that they too could break away and become self-governing nations (New world Encyclopedia, 1).The American Revolution was vital to history because ideas seen by other countries startedRead MoreThe Revolution Of The American Revolution999 Words   |  4 PagesBetween 1770 and 1776, resistance to imperial change turned into a full-on revolution. The American Revolution, also known as the Revolutionary War, was a time of revolting and political uprising, in which the 13 colonies separated from the British Empire, forming the independent nation known as the United States of America. Though the American Revolution began because the colonies wanted independence from Britain, many important historical events and revolts also lead to the tensions and resistanceRead MoreThe Revolution Of The American Revolution1362 Words   |  6 PagesEvery 4th of July, Americans are told the story of the American Revolution. We remember the oppressed colonists fighting against the tyrannical King George III and the formidable red coats. Patriotic heroes are remembered, evil kings are cursed, and the liberties and freedoms won from the war are celebrated. Though America often likes to look back to the revolution, the question of just how much a revolution was the American Revolution is rarely asked. While the American revolution was not as radicalRead MoreThe Revolution Of The American Revolution1582 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"The revolution was effected before the war commenced. The revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people.† - John Adams, 1818 This quote means that the revolution actually took place metaphorically before the actually fighting began. It took place in the emotions and thoughts of the Americans. The Road to Revolution After the Seven Years’ War created a financial problem for Britain The British tried to shoulder some of the financial responsibilities onto the Americas in the form of variousRead MoreThe Revolution Of The American Revolution850 Words   |  4 PagesIn regards to the American Revolution, the point that armed rebellion became inevitable arrived when after nearly five constant years of American colonist protesting. American s had enough and needed to take a stand for the numerous inequalities they were forced to deal with. It was foreseeable that the American Revolution took place due to the unfair taxes that the British were giving Americans. Also, England was not allowing Americans their freedom, along with violence and the political dominanceRead MoreThe American Revolution877 Words   |  4 Pagespeople believe the American Revolution is strictly liberal, in truth it is conservative evidenced by the new British policies, colonial reactions and the examinations of what it means to be conservative vs. liberal. The American Revolution was triggered, by many laws that were passed between 1763 and 1775 that controlled trade and taxes. This legislation caused pressure between colonists and imperial officers, who had made it clear that the British Parliament would not address American complaints relatingRead MoreThe American Revolution871 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Revolution was the struggle by which thirteen colonies won independence from Great Britain, to become what we now know as The United States of America. The American Revolution came about primarily because the colonists had matured. Their interests and goals were so different and distant from those of the mother country. Local politics, practices, social customs, religious beliefs, and economic interests had gone so far from the English ways. The American Revolution had a tremendous impactRead MoreThe American Revolution1543 Words   |  7 PagesThe American Revolution was one of the most important battles in history. It led to the Declaration of Independence and the freedom of America from the British. No one can really say what the exact cause of the Revolution was, but there were many important social, cultural, political and economic causes that led up to the war. I believe one of the main economic reasons the Americans wanted to become free from the British and start the Revolution, was because of all the taxes the British imposedRead MoreThe American Revolution Essay1458 Words   |  6 Pageshistorians might argue that the American Revolution was not so revolutionary in its nature, there is no denying the lasting effects that it has had not only on the continent, but the world. Through an analysis of documents from this period and the social, political, and economic changes that occurred in the colonies, it is clear that the colonial governmental system was radically changed during this time period. The political ideas that emerged from this revolution have shaped modern democratic governmentsRead MoreThe American Revolution1313 Words   |  6 PagesThe American Revolution has provided no shortage of patriotic and romanticized images and ideals for the general public throughout history. Indeed, to this very day, Americans hark back to this ‘glorious achievement’ with pride and use it as fuel for everything from selling jeans (Levi/Strauss) to the creation of video games (Assassin’s Creed.) But the question has remained, for all the hoopla and â€Å"remembrance† that surrounds this period in western history – was this revolution justified? As the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on The Benefits of Banning Public Cigarette Smoking

The Advantages of Banning Public Cigarette Smoking For a long time now many people have different views about smoking in public places. Smokers feel it is their right to smoke where and when they want. On the other hand non-smokers feel smokers violate their rights and endanger their life. Smoking causes heart disease, lung cancer and other serious illnesses. Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. A substantial number of lung cancers that occur in non-smokers can be attributed to involuntary smoking. There are some parts in the United States where you can smoke in public places, on the other hand in New York there are designated areas. While some people feel that smoking in public places should†¦show more content†¦A U.S enviromental protection agency stated second-hand smoke is the third major cause of lung cancer in the United States. The simple separation of smokers within the same air space may reduce, but does not eliminate exposure to passive smoke. In Arizona five thousand and six hundred Americans died in 1989 due to passive smoke. A recent federal Environmental protection agency reported on the dangers of second hand smoke. They found this kills fifty-three thousand non smokers a year. By putting a smoke free policy into effect, it will send a strong message about protecting health. Even though designated areas are set aside for smokers this does not really protect a non-smoker. The heating and air conditions does not filter out carcinogens well enough and the smoke drifts onto non-designated areas. Finally, if public smoking is kept legalized we will have major problems facing the environment. One problem is alot of people are irritated by tobacco smoke. A man named General C.Everett Knoop released a report saying that passive smoking, when a non-smokers breathe smoke in an enclosed area, it causes as many as five deaths a year. Smoking in a public place is an air pollutant and it can damage health in a number of ways. The four major health hazards fall into air, water, and noise pollution. Air pollution can lead to various forms of respiratory disease. The main problem of smoking in a publicShow MoreRelatedBanning The Issue Of Banning Cigarettes1317 Words   |  6 Pagesthat regard, what are considered public places in state laws in reference to smoking is very much debatable. It is our duty as individuals to exercise certain behaviors that will benefit others, regardless of life circumstances and serve our society in the most respectable manner, in accordance to people rights and choices. Since the nineties, there has been a massive controversy on the issue of banning cigarettes in the U.S. Some claim that banning public smoking is an infringement on their freedomRead MoreSmoking Essay1600 Words   |  7 PagesJerry Thomas Professor Michaud Comp amp; Lit 101 December 13, 2010 Ban Smoking The human body is made up of all different organs that are essential to our living being. Taking care of these organs is vital to maintaining our health. One of our most important organs is the lungs. The lungs are used to take in oxygen from the air and help us make blood cells in the body. Keeping the lungs healthy is necessary to keeping your breathing and blood healthy. There are many things that keepRead MoreShould Cigarette Smoking Be Banned?1137 Words   |  5 PagesBiology 101 Should Cigarette Smoking Be Banned? Should there be a ban on cigarette smoking in the United States? Since cigarettes were introduced to Americans, questions have been raised concerning the legality of smoking and if it should be allowed everyone, in public places, or not at all. Recently, with the increase knowledge in cost and healthcare, the controversy with cigarette smoking has significantly risen. Across the country, states have banned smoking in public areas and inside buildingsRead MoreShould Cigarette Smoking Be Banned?824 Words   |  3 Pages Introduction: Tobacco Humans have been using tobacco in one way or the other since ancient times. Use of doesn’t always imply smoking it, but it can be chewed or used in different forms such as Tobacco chewing, dipping tobacco, etc. History: There is no fix time for the start of the use of tobacco in humans but it has been in human use since very ancient times. Locals were using before the arrival of Europeans to Americas. Las Casas brilliantly describes in his journal what the scouts who firstRead MoreOutcome of Banning Smoking in Public Areas663 Words   |  3 Pagesand severe childhood asthma problems has dropped by after smoking was banned in public places. Researchers from the University of Maastricht and the University of Edinburgh studied 250,000 hospital visits and more than 2.5 million births for asthma attacks in children. It was discovered that â€Å"preterm births and hospital attendance for asthma has fallen by 10% â€Å" especially in areas where smoking is banned. Though banning smoking at in public places would possibly have a negative effect, because peopleRead MoreArgumentative Essay About Why Smoking Should Be Banned1047 Words   |  5 PagesBan Smoking in Public Places Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States, and doing it in public is even worse because smokers not only harm themselves, but also those around them. I remember how my great uncle would always smoke in his house regardless of his surroundings. When his daughter visited him for a vacation, she brought her three year old daughter with her. The baby was healthy before coming to her grandpas house, but in less than two weeks, sheRead MoreEssay on Why I Support Banning Smoking in Public Places567 Words   |  3 Pagesprefer that no one smoke cigarettes in any of their offices. Most governments have banned smoking in all public places. Based on personal experience, personality style and emotional concern, we find that some hold the notion that smoking in public places should be banned. Meanwhile, others want to be as free as possible and do as they please, as long as their actions do not violate the rights of others. From my point of view, it is mor e sensible to ban smoking in public places rather than allow second-handRead MoreEssay about Electronic Cigarette Legalization Analysis982 Words   |  4 PagesSince 2008, Electronic Cigarettes have become widely popular across the United States, despite the obvious health benefits the long term health effects of â€Å"smoking† electronic cigarettes are still unknown to researchers today. Electronic Cigarettes are the answer to a safer method of consuming nicotine despite its more popular tobacco products. Even though the effects of consuming large amounts of nicotine in a persons’ system is unknown, the unbanning of electronic cigarettes in Los Angeles decreaseRead MoreShould Smoking Be Banned?1326 Words   |  6 Pagesbreak. Even though people are well equipped with the knowledge of how unhealthy smoking can be and what can it causes to their hearts and lungs, they still choose to smoke. Nowadays smoking becomes a trend like a social media, and especially teenagers , are participating in this as well. Although smoking makes you a person feel relaxed from the stress, it harms the body of the smokers in the long run. We have known that smoking can kill us from past 50-60 years, and according to the World Health OrganizationRead MoreThe Debate Over Banning Smoking in Public Places Essay607 Words   |  3 PagesThe Debate Over Banning Smoking in Public Places In my opinion I think smoking should banned from public places. My reasons for this are; People who smoke should be considerate of that fact that not only are they damaging their own existing health but also they are harming the others around them who are only breathing in the tobacco smoke. During the past ten years of tests, experiments etc. on the effect of smoking both directly and passive, there is now enough

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Explain, and Illustrate Using Graphs free essay sample

Explain, and illustrate using graphs, whether you think a perfectly competitive industry or a monopoly industry leads to more efficient outcomes for an economy. RESEARCH ESSAY Microeconomics is defined as a study of how economic decisions are made by individuals and groups along with the range of factors affecting those decisions. In relevance to this, the analysis of perfect competition and monopoly regarding efficiency is considered one of the most core basis to the understanding of Microeconomics. This paper argues that a perfectly competitive industry leads to more efficient outcomes for an economy than a monopoly does.In this essay, I will first define the concept of two market structure types and then go on to explore how they affect the level of efficiency and economic welfare. Alternatively, I will also bring up some exceptions by which this finding may not be as correct as thought. The first section of this paper will briefly introduce the two main types of market structure. Perfect competition is a market that satisfies the conditions of having many buyers and sellers, firms selling identical products, having zero barriers to entry and having perfect information.A perfectly competitive firm is a price taker as it has no power of affecting the market price. In reality, perfect competition is only a theoretical model and it does not really exist in real-world market (Makowski 2001, 480; Ziebarth 2008, 3 and Pettinger N. Y, sec. 2) although there are some markets that can get slightly close to the previously discussed characteristics such as markets for organic food and currency markets. Despite this, perfect competition is still used as a benchmark since it displays high level of economic efficiency (Riley 2006, sec. 11, par. 1).With the second market structure, a firm is considered as a monopoly only when there is one seller providing certain goods or services with no close substitute and it can ignore other firms’ actions as it is a price maker. (Hubbard, Garnett, Lewis and O’Brien 2010, 224). In regards to the illustration of which industry leads to more efficient outcomes, the following discussion will consist two main parts which represent for the two ways economists use to evaluate perfect competition and monopoly. The first part relates to individual firms in terms of efficiency concept.The second part involves the industries and the level of economic welfare contributed to the entire society. Taking the first part in account, the three concepts of efficiency are of great importance. There are three types of efficiency: allocative, technical and dynamic efficiency. With allocative efficiency, products are produced up to the point where price, or marginal benefit, equals marginal cost of producing an extra unit. Technical efficiency refers to the act of producing a level of outputs using the least amount of resources.Dynamic efficiency is about the adoption of new technology over time to improve production techniques and meet the changing consumer demands (Lewis, Garnett, Treadgold and Hawtrey 2010, 94). Below are the two graphs showing firms’ efficiency in providing goods and services in long-run: Perfect competitionMonopoly The left graph shows the long-run equilibrium of firms in perfect competition. According to this diagram, firms actually earn a zero economic profit since they have to accept the price determined by the whole industry. Thus, their MR curve is the same as their D curve which means they will produce at the output level Q where they can only cover the ATC. Thus, firms are seen as achieving both allocative and technical efficiency. They are allocatively efficient because they will produce up the point where price equals MC of producing an extra unit due to high level of competitors leaving and entering the market in short-run. Furthermore, the firms must minimize their production cost because of zero economic profit.In other words, if they fail to produce at the lowest point on the ATC curve, they have to charge a higher price which basically means they will be driven out of business in such highly competitive markets. So, in this case, perfectly competitive firms can also obtain technical efficiency. As seen in the right graph, with the lack of competition, firms in monopoly can earn great economic profits since they charge a much higher price compared to perfectly competitive firms. According to the diagram, there is allocative inefficiency since monopoly price is higher than MC; firms are producing too little while offering a too high price.In other words, with monopolists, â€Å"resources are under-allocated† to the production of their product (Layton, Robinson and Tucker 2009, 223). Along with this, monopoly firms are not producing the level of outputs where ATC is at its minimum point due to the assistance of high barriers to entry. Thus, firms in monopoly once again fail to gain technical efficiency. Considering the previous discussion, the next section of this paper will explore how the industries of perfect competition and monopoly affect consumer surplus and producer surplus and hence, economic welfare as a whole.In brief, consumer surplus is the difference between the maximum price a consumer is willing to pay and the actual price paid. Producer surplus is the difference between the minimum price a firm is willing to charge and the actual price charged. Below are the two graphs illustrating the differences in economic welfare between the two market structures: Perfect competitionMonopoly Within perfect competition industry, the equilibrium point indicates both profit-maximizing price and profit-maximizing quantity since the firms within perfect competition industry are allocatively and technically efficient.Thus, this results in maximum economic welfare which is the sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus as shown in the left diagram. With the right diagram, while Pc and Qc are price and quantity of perfect competition, Pm and Qm represent for price and quantity of monopoly. As seen in this diagram, monopoly charges higher price which makes price increase from Pc to Pm. Hence, this end up in a loss in consumer surplus which is area 1, this loss becomes the gain of monopoly.Moreover, due to the decrease of output level from Qc to Qm, there is a loss in consumer surplus – area 2, and a loss in producer surplus †“ area 3 as well. So these two losses are actually added up together as a deadweight loss in economic welfare for society. In short, perfect competition leads to more efficient outcomes to society in terms of efficiency concept and economic welfare. A perfectly competitive firm is more allocatively and technically efficient and it also lead to maximum economic welfare. Besides this, monopoly leads to inefficiency and deadweight loss for society.However, there are still some exceptions to this conclusion by which perfect competition may not be that efficient and monopoly may not be that inefficient. In relevance to the first exception, perfect competition is not as efficient as thought since it can end up with a market failure. One fundamental example of this would be one with externalities. An externality could be a benefit or cost that affects a third party of the exchange of the good. Two types of externalities are positive externality and negative externality; both deal with the extra benefit and cost to society that are not recognized by erfect competition industry. As a result, economic efficiency will be reduced and ended up as a deadweight loss as shown in the following diagrams: Positive externality Negative externality The second exception refers to natural monopoly by which monopoly can be considered productive efficient. According to McTaggart, Findlay and Parkin (2010, 222), a natural monopoly arises when one firm having large economies of scale can supply products to the entire market at a lower average total cost than several firms can. A prime example of this would be a power station.In general, it is of more efficiency when having only one firm serving the market than many competitive firms. This is true because many firms operating in such markets may have to produce at a much higher average total cost and thus, offer higher price than the natural monopoly. And this certainly leads to more inefficient outcomes. The final exception deals with the probability of firms having innovations and this relates to the dynamic efficiency concept. With perfect competition, due to high level of competition, firms may want to better their production techniques in order to compete with others.Yet in the long run, firms earn zero economic which also means that they do not have sufficient funds for RD. It is once again argued here that non-competitive firms like monopoly make large profits which can be spent for RD. Thus, monopoly in this case is more efficient in providing improvements and innovations to the products offered which is a significant benefit for society overall. In conclusion, the finding of this paper is that perfectly competitive firms achieve both allocative and technical efficiency while monopoly firms do not.Also, perfect competition is more efficient when helping the society obtain the maximum economic welfare while monopoly ends up with a deadweight loss. On the other hand, this paper has also brought up externalities, natural monopoly and innovation as some exceptions where perfect competition is not efficient as thought and monopoly can be more efficient. But for most cases, perfect competition is still a preferred economic model due to its high level of efficient outcomes for society. REFERENCES: Hubbard, Glenn, Anne Garnett, Phil Lewis and Tony O’Brien. 2010.

Sunday, April 5, 2020

Taxation in the Philippines Essay Example

Taxation in the Philippines Essay The laws governing taxation in the Philippines are contained within the National Internal Revenue Code. This code underwent substantial revision with passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1997. This law took effect on January 1, 1998. Taxation is   administered   through the Bureau of Internal Revenue which comes under the Department of Finance. The chief executive of the Bureau of Internal Revenue is the  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Commissioner who has exclusive and original jurisdiction to interpret the provisions of the code and other tax laws.Read also The Philippine Peso Us Dollar Exchange RateThe commissioner also has the powers to decide disputed assessments, grant refunds of taxes, fees and other charges and penalties, modify payment of any internal revenue tax and abate or cancel a tax liability. Taxpayers can appeal decisions by the Commissioner directly to the Court of Tax Appeals. II. Primary tax incentivesA. Tax holidayThe Omnibus Investments Code grants to enterp rises that have registered with the Board of Investments and that qualify under the annual Investments Priority Plan   entitlements to tax holidays of either four or six years.In addition, they are granted tax credits for purchase of Philippine-made capital equipment and raw materials. B. Special Economic ZonesThere are over thirty special economic zones throughout the Philippines where export manufacturing firms are encouraged to start operations. Under the Philippine Export Zone Authority Law, a special economic zone registered enterprise can, in lieu of all other national and local taxes, pay a tax of 5% of its gross income.A firm that has registered under the Omnibus Investments Code that is located and registered to do business within a special economic zone can have a tax holiday for the first four or six years of its operations, followed by   a 5% tax thereafter. The exemption from national taxes covers all internal revenue taxes, including the Value Added Tax. III. Tax t reaty with the United StatesThe Philippines has tax treaties with many countries, including the United States, in order to minimize the effects of double taxation.The business profits of a resident of another country with whom the Philippines has a tax treaty   are taxable in the Philippines only if the resident has a permanent establishment in the Philippines to which the profits are attributable. IV. Primary types of taxationA. Individual Income TaxResidents engaged in trade or business are taxed upon their net income (gross income less allowable deductions and personal exemptions) according to a schedule of rates ranging from 3% to 33%.The maximum rate will be reduced to 32% on January 1, 2000. Residency tests are used to determine resident alien status where the resident alien falls under the Individual Income Tax schedule of rates. B. Passive income1. Interest  A ‘final’ tax of 20% is imposed on interest income. This tax is withheld at the source. Exceptions to this are:i. Interest income from a depositary bank with a Foreign Currency Deposit Unit is subject to a final tax rate of 7. 5%. ii. Philippine long term investments of over five years are exempt from tax. 2.DividendsA final tax of 10% is imposed on cash or property dividends from domestic corporations, joint stock companies, insurance or mutual funds, or regional operating headquarters of multinational corporations. The distributable net income, after tax, of a partnership is subject to the same final tax as dividends. 3. Capital gainsThe tax code imposes a final tax of 5% on net capital gains from the sale of stock in a domestic corporation up to 100,000 pesos. The tax is 10% for any income over 100,000 pesos. If the stock is stock exchange listed, a transfer tax of 0. 5% is also imposed. . Fringe benefitsFringe benefits, such as housing, expense accounts, vehicles, household personnel, membership fees and educational fees are taxable under the fringe benefits tax and are payable by the employer, who is responsible for withholding it and remitting it to the government. The fringe benefits tax is 33% (going to 32% on January 1, 2000) of the grossed-up monetary value of the fringe benefits given to the employee. C. Corporation taxResident foreign corporations engaged in trade or business in the Philippines are taxed at the same rates as domestic corporations.The corporation income tax rate is currently 30%. Effective January 1, 2000, the tax code includes an option for corporations to be taxed at a rate of 15% of gross income if the President of the Philippines chooses to enact this option. If the option is granted by the President, only firms whose proportion of the cost of sales or receipts from all sources does not exceed 55% may exercise the option. This method of taxation, once elected, shall be irrevocable for three consecutive years. Under the Tax Reform Act, the Philippines has also established a Minimum Corporate Income Tax.Subsequent to the fourth t axable year after a corporation has started its business, a minimum corporate income tax of 2% of the gross income is imposed if this amount is greater than the regularly computed tax. This amount can be carried forward and credited against the normal income tax for the three immediately succeeding taxable years. D. Value Added Tax (VAT)The VAT is equivalent to 12% of the gross selling price or gross value in money of goods or properties sold, bartered or exchanged. Any excise tax on these goods is also part of the gross selling price.In the case of imported goods, VAT is based on the total value of the goods as determined by the Bureau of Customs plus customs duties, excise taxes and incidental charges. The VAT is an indirect tax. While the obligation to collect and remit rests with the seller, the cost of the tax may be passed on to the buyer, transferee or lessee of the goods, properties or services. A VAT registered entity may credit the VAT paid on purchases of other goods and services against the tax on its current period sales of goods or services.If the amount of input tax is greater than the amount of output tax, the excess may be credited against succeeding period output VAT. VAT registered entities are required to issue an invoice or receipt for every sale and, in addition to regularly required accounting records, they must maintain subsidiary sales and purchase journals exclusively for VAT purposes. VAT reports must be submitted on a quarterly basis, twenty-five days after the end of the quarter. VAT payments must be made on a monthly basis. V. Other taxesPercentage tax (primarily for non-VAT registered entitiesExcise tax Documentary stamp taxEstate and donor’s (gift) tax  | Taxes|    Other Taxes|   | |   Corporate Taxpayers1. Domestic corporations are taxed at 30% of annual taxable income from worldwide sources with option for 15% tax on gross income subject to certain conditions. Domestic corporations are those established under th e laws of the Philippines and include  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   foreign-owned corporations, otherwise known as subsidiaries. 2. A foreign corporation, whether engaged or not in trade or business in the Philippines, is taxable on Philippine-sourced income at the same rates as domestic corporations.Such foreign corporation engaged in trade or business in the Philippines (also called resident foreign corporation) is taxed based on net income with the same option to pay 15% tax on gross income. On the other hand, a foreign corporation not engaged in business or trade in the Philippines (also known as a nonresident foreign corporation) is taxed based on gross income received. 3. Profits remitted by a branch of a foreign corporation to its home office are taxed at the rate of 15%. However, this tax does not apply to a Philippine branch registered with PEZA.Dividends declared by a domestic corporation to its foreign parent are generally taxed at 30%. However, if the home country of the recipient corporation allows an additional credit of 17% as tax deemed paid in the Philippines, the tax is reduced to 15%. Dividends remitted to countries that do not impose a tax on offshore dividends qualify for this rate. Under the Philippine tax treaties with Netherlands, Japan, Germany, Korea and Austria, a preferential tax of 10% on branch profit remittances is granted.Furthermore, under the tax treaties with these countries, dividends paid are subject to 10% tax if the payor-subsidiary is registered with the BOI or if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a company which holds a certain percentage of the capital of the payor subsidiary. Otherwise, the tax on dividends is 15%. 4. All corporations, whether domestic or foreign, are subject to capital gains tax on the sale of shares of stock, in the same manner as individual taxpayers. Other income items such as interest and royalties are taxed at various rates.Dividends received by a domestic or resident foreign corpor ation from a domestic corporation are exempt from tax. A minimum corporate income tax of 2% of the gross income as of the end of the taxable year is imposed on a corporation which is subject to normal income tax of 30% beginning on the fourth taxable year immediately following the year in which such corporation was registered with the Bureau of Internal Revenue, when the minimum income tax is greater than the normal income tax for the taxable year. 5.Any excess of the minimum corporate income tax over the normal income tax as computed shall be carried forward and credited against the normal income tax for the three immediately succeeding taxable years. Every corporation formed or availed for the purpose of avoiding the income tax with respect to its shareholders or the shareholders of any other corporation by permitting earnings and profits to accumulate instead of being divided or distributed, is taxed at the rate of 10% for each taxable year on the improperly accumulated taxable i ncome. . In general, an employer (individual or corporation) shall pay a final tax of 30% on the grossed-up monetary value of fringe benefit furnished or granted to the employee (except rank and file) unless the fringe benefit is required by nature of, or necessary to the trade, business or profession of the employer. Local tax on certain businesses1. Manufacturers, wholesalers, exporters and contractors are subject to graduated taxes on certain amounts of sales/gross receipts and percentage taxes at maximum rates ranging from . 75% to . 75% on the amounts not subject to graduated taxes, depending on the place where business is conducted. For essential commodities, the rates are 50% lower. Retailers are subject to 2% tax if their gross receipts are PhP400,000 or less and to 1% tax if in excess of PhP400,000. 2. Banks and other financial institutions- percentage tax at maximum rates ranging from . 50% to . 75% depending on the locality of the business. 3.Others varying rates  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚   Aside from the above business taxes, there are other taxes  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   levied in the Philippines such as:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   a. Real estate tax b. Stamp tax on certain documents, instruments and related   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   transactions such as issuance of shares of stock, evidence  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   of   indebtedness, transfer of real property, lease contracts,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   insurance policies, etc.. c. Community tax d. Overseas communications tax  National Taxes  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   VALUE ADDED TAX1.Twelve percent (12%) VAT is imposed on importation of goods and sale, barter, exchange or lease of goods, properties and services in the Philippines, subject to certain exceptions. Goods or properties mean all tangible and intangib le objects, including real property, patents, trademarks and similar rights and movable and personal goods. Services cover performance of all kinds of services in the Philippines for a fee. Exports are generally subject to 0% VAT.VAT exempt goods include such items as books, fertilizers, livestock and poultry feeds  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   and agricultural and marine food products in their original state. 2. Gross receipts tax on certain businesses:. a. Bank and other non-bank financial intermediaries  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   0% to 5%   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   b. Life insurance companies  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   5%   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   c. Common passenger carriers  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚      3%   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   d. Electric, gas and water utilities  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     2%   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   e. Oth ers  ranging from 3% to 30% 3.Excise tax on alcohol, tobacco, petroleum and mineral products, cinematographic films, automobiles, jewelry, etc. at varying rates. Individual Taxpayers1. Taxable income from employment, business, trade and exercise of profession including casual gains, profits, and prizes of PhP10,000 or less; except items of income subject to final tax and special treatment, e. g. capital gains and passive income mentioned in items 4 and 5 below, derived by resident citizens from all sources within and without the Philippines are subject to the graduated tax rates of 5% to 32%.The top rate of 32% applies to taxable income in excess of PhP500,000. Resident aliens and non-resident citizens are subject to the same graduated tax rates but only for income derived from all sources within the Philippines. 2. Non-resident aliens are taxed at 25% of gross income from sources within the Philippines if their stay within the country does not exceed 180 days in the calendar year . Otherwise, they are taxed on the basis of graduated rates as in (1) above. 3.Aliens who are employed by regional or area or regional operating headquarters of multinational corporations, representative offices, offshore banking units, petroleum service contractors and subcontractors are subject to income tax at 15% of their gross income from such employers (e. g. salaries, annuities, honoraria and allowances). 4. Net capital gains realized during each taxable year from the sales of shares of domestic stocks not traded in the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) are taxed at the rate of 5% on the first PhP100,000 gains and 10% on the excess over PhP100,000.For domestic shares listed and traded in the PSE, the tax is 1/2 of 1% of the gross selling price or gross value in money of the shares of stock sold. Likewise, there is a tax on shares of stock sold, exchanged or otherwise disposed through initial public offering at the rates of 1%, 2% and 4%, depending on the proportion of the share s sold, exchanged or otherwise disposed to the total outstanding shares after listing of the shares of closely held corporations. Capital gains on sale of real property are taxed at 6% of gross selling rice or fair market value, whichever is higher. 5. Passive income items like interest, dividends, royalties, prizes and other winnings are also taxed at different rates. For instance, dividends received by citizens and residents from a domestic corporation and the share of an individual partner in a taxable partnership are taxed at 10%. However, the tax on such dividends shall apply only on income earned on or after January 1, 1998. If the dividends are paid to  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   non-residents, the tax is 20% for those engaged in trade or business and 25% for the others. | |

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Hypermiling (Saving Lots of Fuel) in a Hybrid

Hypermiling (Saving Lots of Fuel) in a Hybrid Hypermiling is an endless pursuitthe quest for improved fuel economy, ratcheted up a couple of notches to near fanaticism. Those who practice it are called hypermilers, a dedicated group of guys and gals who routinely push the limits of maximum fuel efficiency. It got its name from the likes of Wayne Gerdes, one of the original devotees of hypermiling, and often proclaimed the inventor of the term. Hypermiling more or less got its start with hybrids, but its not limited to them. Here, well focus on hypermiling with a hybrid vehicle. Some of the techniques can only be done with a hybrid, or, at least they make it much easier and saferthough some hardcore hypermilers perform ALL of these techniques in regular cars. We dont recommend that, but really, a lot of it is just plain common sense that can be applied to just about any vehicle and/or driver. So what are these techniques and tools that are employed so passionately by their devotees? Read on for an explanation of these FE (thats hypermileresque for Fuel Economy) tricks. Pulse and Glide (PG) This is the heart of effective hypermiling for full hybrid vehicles. Though it takes some getting used to, and its really only appropriate for light suburban and town traffic, large FE gains can be had using it. Our first successful PG was in a Nissan Altima Hybrid. This car is equipped with Toyotas Hybrid Synergy Drive (Nissan licensed it from Toyota), but our car was lacking an energy flow monitor, so we had to rely on the EV mode display and the Kilowatt (kW) meter to execute the task properly. To initiate a PG, accelerate to about 40 MPH with the engine running (the pulse part), then ease off the pedal until the hybrid system goes into EV (electric vehicle) mode and the kW meter shows zero (or if equipped with the energy flow monitor, no arrows are showing energy flow). This is the glide part. The engine is off, the electric motor is disengaged and the vehicle is literally coasting for free. When the car slows to about twenty-five or thirty MPH (depending on traffic conditions, of course) repeat the pulse part, then the glide and so on. If properly applied, this trick uses the engine only to accelerate, and it never has the chance to idle along, wasting fuel while providing no return. Forced Auto Stop (FAS) Forced Auto Stop is similar to PG without the objective of re-accelerating. In a hybrid, it is usually a matter of lifting the accelerator below a speed of approximately 40 MPH and letting the engine shut-off. This allows the car to coast to a slower speed, or come to a complete stop without the engine running. However, many conditions can affect FAS (adequate battery state of charge, hybrid system temperature, engagement of AC compressor, cabin heat, etc.) and are not always so simple. Depending upon the hardware and software controls of the hybrid system, there are ways to fool the system into FAS. Unfortunately, they are many and varied, and beyond the scope of this article. Draft Assisted Forced Auto Stop (D-FAS) This technique involves riding in the wake of a large trailer truck at highway speeds (in FAS). Its not safe, DONT DO IT. We only mention it here because it is part of some hypermilers arsenal of tricks. Driving Without Brakes (DWB) More hypermilers tongue-in-cheek terminology. We like to think of this as driving with minimal brakes, but it must be done with a good dose of common senseits really not a good idea to take a 25 MPH curve at 50 trying to save gas. The main idea here is to not use the brakes to scrub off speed that has been achieved with energy (gasoline) spent. Anticipation is the keyword. Look far down the road to anticipate traffic stoppages, sharp curves, and signal changes and begin to decelerate or coast beforehand. The benefit is three-fold: Not only does DWB increase brake life, it reduces the number of times the vehicle must be started from a dead-stop (overcoming the inertia of a stationary vehicle consumes an enormous amount of energy), and, with a hybrid, the coasting action (regenerative braking) helps charge the battery. Ridge Riding This is the practice of driving very close to the outside edge of the road in order to keep the vehicles tires out of the slight depressions (ruts) worn into the road surface by the constant pounding of daily traffic. For most purposes, this technique is really only effective on wet roadways. Staying out of the ruts, which are filled with a thin layer of water, reduces drag on the tires and increases efficiency. An additional benefit is improved safety by preventing the tires from hydroplaning (riding on top of the water) and loss of vehicle control. Face out Potential Parking This is just plain common sense with a little bit of exercise, to boot. Search out open spaces in parking lots to eliminate the wasteful movement of backing out of a slot. Go one better by locating a spot that is on a bit of a slope, and then use gravity to help get the vehicle moving from a standstill. Sound silly? Multiply those effects over hundreds of park jobs in a year; it really does add up. Fuel Consumption Display (FCD) This is the gauge on the instrument panel of hybrids and many non-hybrids as well. Dedicated hypermilers call this the game gauge, and in many ways, thats just what it is. This device continuously calculates a vehicles average fuel consumption expressed in MPG (or, in metric mode, kilometers/liter) and displays it to the driver who can then make a fantastic game of making the average FE go ever upwards. Instant Fuel Consumption Display (IFCD) The instant fuel consumption display is very similar to the FCD, except that it displays fuel usage, just as the name impliesinstantlyas it is used. The display changes moment by moment in response to sundry dynamic physical conditions: throttle off, light acceleration, heavy load, hard acceleration, coasting and cruising. This gauge, more than any other on a vehicle, hammers home the relationship between fuel economy and driving habits. Keeping the instant fuel consumption display relatively constant and even, with a high reading, will probably net more consistent (and easily attainable) FE than any trick or gadget outlined in this entire article.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Two cheers for anarchy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Two cheers for anarchy - Essay Example From the book, it is evident that hierarchy is common in everyday life and in many situations. As such, it ought to be considered and the role it plays given undivided attention. The book also provides an argument of Scott’s view of freedom. Based on the arguments that he presents in the book, it can be concluded that the state does not always oppose freedom. According to the author, the state can play a role of emancipation whereby it can free people from injustices that deny them freedom. Through democratic representation of the citizens, the state strives to ensure that all people are equally represented and that no person enjoys freedom at the expense of others. Scott argues that anarchism teaches people about revolutionary and reformist political changes in society and how they tend to happen. Based on the arguments provided in the book, it can be concluded that protests and movements are not necessarily supported by organizations. Rather, it is the other way round whereby protests and movements enhance the functioning of organizations (Scott 10). Scott also discusses the aspects of structural change in society and the factors that determine such changes. From the book, it can be concluded that structural change is witnessed when there is mass destructions that happen as a result of riots, arson, theft, as well as unorganized demonstrations and mass actions, which threatens the existence and functioning of the institutions that the state has already established. Scott notes that, from an anarchist’s point of view, subordinate members of the society such as artisans and peasants were considered thinkers who shaped the political views of their respective regions (Scott 22). All chapters in the book start with a story about anarchism; in each of the book chapters, there is a representation of an element of truth about anarchism. While narrating his stories, the